Glossary

Access – Access to a bank, NBFI or mobile money account; those with access have used the services either via their own account or via the account of another person.

Active account holder – An individual who has a registered financial services account and has used it in the last 90 days.

Advanced Function (Mobile Phone) – Performing a task beyond basic phone use including conducting a financial transaction, sending/receiving a text, taking a picture or accessing the internet. 

Advanced use – The use of an account for services other than basic or P2P services. (For the purposes of this study, in the case of mobile money, airtime top-ups are not considered an advanced use.)

Basic use – The use of an account to cash-in (deposit) or cash-out (withdraw), or conduct account maintenance.

DFS access – Access to a DFS account through one’s own account or someone else’s account.

Below the poverty line – In this particular study, adults living on less than $2.50 per day, as classified by the Grameen PPI.

Cooperative – Typically, a business or other professional organization that is owned and run jointly by its members, who share the profits or benefits. Cooperatives can release some of the profits/funds as loans to its members.

Digital financial services (DFS) – Financial services that are provided through an electronic platform (mobile phones, electronic cards, the internet, etc.).

Digital Literacy – Literacy is inferred from the proficiency of use of a mobile phone.  N/A = does not use a mobile phone, low = only makes/receives calls, moderate = sends/receives text messages, and high = performs functions such as accessing the internet and downloading music. 

Farmer – Individuals who respond to the open-ended question “what is your primary job?” with “farmer,” “farm worker,” “farm owner” or similar response.

Financial inclusion – For the purposes of this report, financial inclusion is defined as having an account with an institution that provides a full suite of financial services and comes under some form of government regulation. Services include: savings, money transfers, insurance or investment.

Financial Numeracy – The ability to complete basic mathematical functions including addition, division, and savings and loan interest.  Answering all of the questions correctly places the respondent in the high range, answering half or more correctly comprises the middle range, and less than half equals the low range.

Full-service financial institution – Financial institutions that offer its customers at least one of the following services: savings, money transfers, insurance or investment.

Informal financial institutions – Financial institutions or services that do not offer accounts or a full suite of services. These vary from highly informal services such as money guards (individuals who keep money for others) to established community savings groups or collectives.

Microfinance institution (MFI) – An organization that offers financial services to low-income populations. Almost all give loans to their members, and many offer insurance, deposit and other services.

Mobile money (MM) – A service in which a mobile phone is used to access financial services.

Nonbank financial institution (NBFI) – A financial organization that is not formally licensed as a bank or a mobile money provider, but whose activities are regulated, at least to some extent, by the central bank within the respective country. Such financial institutions include microfinance institutions (MFI), cooperatives, Post Office Savings Banks and village-level, semi-formal savings groups.

Over-The-Counter – Unregistered use of mobile money.

Post Office (Savings) Bank – A government-run bank that operates through local post offices.

P2P transaction – The use of an account to send or receive money to or from other individuals.

Registered account holder – An individual who has a full-service bank, NBFI or mobile money account in their own name that offers more than just credit services.

ROSCA – A rotating savings and credit association.  Members contribute an equal sum and the total is then giving to a single individual. 

Savings and credit cooperative (SACCO) – A unique member driven, self-help group, which is owned and managed by its members who have a common bond (e.g., work for the same employer, belong to the same church, live in the same village, etc.). All members contribute to the SACCO fund, which can be used for group investment or a part of which can be given to members as loans.

Unregistered/OTC user – An individual who has ever used a bank, NBFI or mobile money services through someone else’s account, including a mobile money agent’s account or the account of a family member or neighbor.

Urban/rural – Urban and rural persons are defined according to their residence in urban or rural areas as prescribed by the national bureau of statistics.

Village level semi-formal savings group – a savings group, often tied to initial or ongoing support from an NGO, that requires members to regularly contribute to a group-managed fund and disburses loans based on pre-determined requirements and loan terms.

Youth – Age 15 to 24 years old.