Government initiatives and technological advancements have helped to make large numbers of consumers financially included, but that number includes more men than women. Women lag behind men in use of financial tools and mechanisms across every measure, including mobile phone ownership, mobile money use, and bank account ownership.
Since 2017, the FII survey series has included a set of questions focused specifically on measures of economic empowerment. A primary aim of these questions is to track the differences in economic empowerment for men and women, and how these are connected to factors like education and use of financial services.
The survey includes a set of questions designed to measure an individual's level of economic empowerment. We looked at four specific questions that measure different dimensions of empowerment. Together these questions capture most of the variation that exists in the responses to the questions in this section. Each reflects an important way in which people feel economically empowered:
The response to each question is mapped to a scale that ranges from 1 (low economic empowerment) to 5 (high economic empowerment).